Toba Batak

The Toba Batak are the largest subgroup of the Batak, a group of related peoples living in the highlands of northern Sumatra. Partly as a result of the mountainous nature of their territory and their fierce reputation, the Toba Batak remained independent and relatively isolated until the second half of the nineteenth century. Their indigenous religion involved a pantheon organized around the sky god Mula Jadi and the serpentine god of the underworld Naga Pahoha. Today, the Toba Batak are overwhelmingly Christian.