0 Largely voluntary (Autonomy was ceded either voluntarily or as a result of pressure from other members of the same culture, without the threat of external force being necessary.) 34
1 Partly voluntary (e.g. Autonomy was ceded voluntarily but under duress; some communities ceded their autonomy voluntarily but others were forced to do so by an foreign power.) 30
2 Largely involuntary (autonomy was lost largely as a result of external force) 46

Nature of loss of autonomy – voluntary vs. forced

Culture Value Source